GLOSSARY

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  Term Definition
A Top Actor An actor is someone or something outside the system that interacts with the system (e.g, an end-user or system administrator might be actors or another system with which the system interacts might also be an actor).
Application Program Interface (API) A set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications; a set of building blocks for program development by programmers. 
Assessment The evaluation and interpretation of measurements and other information to provide a basis for decision making.
Association In data modeling, a structural relationship that specifies that instances of one thing are connected to instances of another.
Attribute In data modeling, specific items of data that can be collected for a class.
AVR "Analysis, Visualization, and Reporting"
B Top Back-end Any software performing either the final stage in a process, or a task not apparent to the user. A common usage is a verification of permissions based on user-class and security. The end-user accesses the application and pages are retrieved based on user-class permissions.
Best Practices The processes, practices, and systems identified in public and private organizations that performed exceptionally well and are widely recognized as improving an organization's performance and efficiency in specific areas.
Business Analyst (BA) Individuals who work well as liaisons between organizational groups to enhance communications. Business Analysts can be sales representatives, payroll supervisors, programmers, or database administrators.
Business Model Refers to the contractual arrangement between the vendor and jurisdiction including fee schedule, terms, conditions, vendor operational plans, etc.
C Top CAM CDC Area Module
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Unified Process (CDC UP) CDC-customized version of the Rational Unified Process. 
Client-server A common form of distributed system in which software is split between server tasks and client tasks. A client sends requests to a server asking for information or action and the server responds.
Commercial off-the Shelf (COTS) Ready-made merchandise that is available for sale.
Conceptual data model The "logical" product of the database design process which aims to identify and organize the data logically. This data model describes the information to be contained in a database, how the information will be used, and how the items in the database will be related to each other but is not the "coded" database or "physical data model."
D Top Data Model A framework for the development of a new or enhanced application. The purpose of data modeling is to develop an accurate model, or graphical representation, of the client's information needs and business process.
Dependency A relationship between two or more deliverables, requirements, and/or project artifacts that implies that a change in one item in a dependency relationship likely requires a change in the other items. 
Developer A developer is a person responsible for developing the required functionality in accordance with project-adopted standards and procedures including requirements, analysis & design, implementation, and test disciplines.
E Top Electronic Lab-based Reporting (ELR) ELR is the transmission of data of public health importance from clinical laboratories to public health agencies in electronic format. Ideally, data transmitted by ELR would be automated and would use standardized codes for tests and results.
End user The ultimate consumer of a product, especially the one for whom the product has been designed. End-users for a patient management application include physicians, nurses, epidemiologists, outreach workers and health care providers.
Enhancement Request An enhancement request is a type of stakeholder request that specifies a new feature or functionality of the system. See also change request.
Excel A Microsoft software program enabling spreadsheet data entry and calculations to manage critical business data. 
F Top Front-end An intermediary computer that does the set-up and filtering for the back-end system. Front-end software provides an interface to other programs in the back-end.
Function A set of related activities that is part of a process, often known as a sub-process within a process. Organizations often divide themselves into functional units, such as purchasing, product development and order fulfillment.
Functional Capability (FC) An externally observable service provided by the system that partly or directly fulfills a system feature requirement. 
Functional Requirement A description of what a system should be able to do–a function it should perform. 
G Top Government Off-The Shelf Software Government (Federal, State, Local, etc) developed software.
H Top Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) The Administrative Simplification provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 are intended to reduce the costs and administrative burdens of health care by making possible the standardized, electronic transmission of health care data.
Health Level 7 (HL7) A standards development organization formed in 1987 to produce a standard for hospital information systems. The HL7 standard is a standard for electronic data exchange in health care that enables the exchange of clinical and administrative information.
I Top Information Technology (IT) Refers to all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange, and use information in its various forms (business data, voice conversations, still images, motion pictures, multimedia presentations, and other forms.)
Infrastructure Basic installations and facilities on which the continuance and growth of a community depend, such as power plants, transportation systems, and communications systems.
Iteration An iteration is a distinct sequence of activities with a base-lined plan and valuation criteria resulting in a release (internal or external).
J Top JAD Sessions Joint Application Design (JAD) sessions bring the principal stakeholders together with key developers, under the guidance of a facilitator, to collectively analyze requirements and develop solutions.
JAD Working Sessions Working sessions share many characteristics with facilitated JAD sessions. Working sessions are generally led by a team member, are less formal, are unstructured, involve fewer participants and may involve only development team members.
L Top Logical Observations, Identifiers, Names and Codes (LOINC) The LOINC database provides a set of universal names and ID codes for identifying laboratory and clinical observations. The purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of clinical laboratory results.
N Top National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiative that promotes the use of data and information system standards to advance the development of efficient, integrated, and interoperable surveillance systems at federal, state, and local levels.
National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS) A computerized public health surveillance information system that provides the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with weekly data regarding cases of nationally notifiable diseases.
NBS The NEDSS Base System supports functions common to most surveillance systems and is not specific to any disease category or program area.
New Technology (NT) A version of the Windows operating system that supports preemptive multitasking, with two versions: Windows NT Server, designed to act as a server in networks, and Windows NT Workstation for stand-alone or client workstations.
Non-functional Requirements Software design requirements related to the efficiency, reliability, portability, and usability of the system. Also known as supplementary requirement.
O Top Object-oriented The use of programming techniques based on the concept of an "object" which is a data structure that encapsulates a set of routines that operate on the data. Object-oriented design (OOD) is a design method in which a system is modeled as a collection of cooperating "objects."
P Top PAM Program Area Modules are created and integrated with the NBS to incorporate disease specific data and processes.
Physical data model The "physical" product of the database design process which is the "coded" representation of the "conceptual data model."
Platform-independent The Use Case contains requirements (e.g., functions, features, business rules). These requirements are "platform-independent" when those requirements do not specify or rely on specific technologies, operating systems or vendors. The Use Case documents the way that the application should function, not the software to be used by the developer to create the application.
Process A set of activities that produces products and services for customers. 
Process Flow The set of steps or working states in a documented standard process. 
Process Management Approach Approaches, such as continuous process improvement, business process redesign, and re-engineering, which can be used together or separately to improve processes and sub-processes.
Public Health Information Network (PHIN) An "electronic nervous system" that supports monitoring and maintaining the public's health by detecting problems, analyzing accumulated data, creating useful information, communicating alerts, and directing appropriate responses to maintain health.
Public Health Logical Data Model (PHLDM) An information standards project within PHIN that is a derivative of HL-7 RIM, including a Unified Person (Patient) Registry and Integratable Data Repositories.
R Top Rational Unified Process (RUP) The Rational Unified Process methodology is a Software Engineering Process. It consists of a practical set of best practices, workflows, and artifacts for iterative software development.
Requirement A requirement describes a condition or capability to which a system must conform; either derived directly from user needs, or stated in a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed document. A requirement is a desired feature, property, or function to be met by the application.
Role A role is a definition of the behavior and responsibilities of an individual, or a set of individuals working together as a team, within the context of a software engineering organization.
Role-Based The identification, authentication and authorization of individuals based on their job titles within an organization.
S Top SAS Statistical Analysis Software, q.v. 
Scaleable Architecture Able to be changed in size or configuration to suit changing conditions.
Software Requirement A software requirement is a specification of an externally observable behavior of the system; for example, inputs to the system, outputs from the system, functions of the system, attributes of the system, or attributes of the system environment.
Software Requirements Specifications (SRS) A project artifact that defines the complete system requirements through use cases and supplementary specifications. 
Stakeholder A stakeholder is an individual who is materially (i.e. to a significant extent or degree) affected by the outcome of the system.
Stakeholder Need A stakeholder need is a business or operational problem (opportunity) that must be fulfilled in order to justify purchase or use.
Stakeholder Request A stakeholder request is a request of any type from a stakeholder, including a change request, enhancement request, request for a requirement change, or defect.
Subject Matter Expert (SME) A Subject Matter Expert plays a critical role in defining business needs and software functionality. A Subject Matter Expert (SME) has special, in-depth knowledge of a business area.
System Administrator (Sysadmin) The individual(s) responsible for maintaining a multi-user computer system (including a local-area network [LAN]), whose duties may include setting up user accounts, installing software, prevent the spread of viruses, and allocating mass storage space.
T Top Technical specifications A detailed, exact statement of functions, features, fields, files, screen mock-ups, vocabulary, business rules, etc with sufficient detail to be used by developers to code the application.
TIMS Tuberculosis Information Management System
Traceability Traceability is the ability to trace a project element to other related project elements, especially those related to requirements. Project elements involved in traceability are called traceability items.
Triggering Event As used within the CRSS, a real-world event that causes a Use Case to be invoked. 
U Top Use Case A sequence of transactions between a system and an actor in response to a triggering event initiated by the actor. A use case typically represents a system function that provides a visible or measurable result for an actor.
Use-Case Specification The text explanation or description of a use case.
User interface The programming that controls a display for the user (usually on a computer monitor) and that allows the end user to interact with the system with commands and mechanisms to control system operation and input data.
V Top Value-Added Those activities or steps which add to or change a product or service as it goes through a process; the activities or steps that customers view as important and necessary.
W Top Web-based A set of interconnected web pages, usually including a homepage, generally located on the same server, and prepared and maintained as a collection of information by a person, group, or organization. Web-based applications are usually accessed with a web browser (e.g., Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape).
Windows When spelled with a capital W, the term references Microsoft Windows products.
X Top XP An operating system introduced in 2001 from Microsoft's Windows family of operating systems.

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